Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being only larger than Mercury. It is often referred to as “Red Planet” due to the presence of iron oxide on its surface.
Mass: 6.417 ×10^23 kg
Radius: 3,389 Km
Density: 3.933 g/cm^3
Escape Velocity: 5.03 km/sec
Gravity: 3.72 m/s^2
Distance from Sun: 211.72 million km (11.7 light minutes)
Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth and is less dense than Earth. The farthest distance of the Red Planet from Earth is 401 million km / 249 million mi, and its closest distance to us can be 54.6 million km / 34 million mi, while the average distance is 225 million km / 140 million mi.
Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and other elements that typically make up rock. Although Mars has no evidence of a structured magnetic field, observations show that parts of the planet’s crust have been magnetized, suggesting that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past.
Through continuous observations and analysis, it is strongly believed that Mars was once very similar to Earth, possessing water or even whole oceans. Recent studies indicate that it may have water even now under its polar ice.
One rotation/day on Mars is completed within 24.6 hours while a whole trip around the Sun or year is completed within 669.6 days.
Bonus Fact : Mars is home to the tallest mountain in the solar system – Olympus Mons, a shield volcano, is 21 km high and 600 km in diameter